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Cyanobacterial microflora is very diverse in different habitats over the world and closely connected with the ecology of the habitat. In particular, extreme habitats are colonised by numerous specialised morpho- and ecotypes which are unique to these ecologically specialised environments. A variety of methods are needed to characterize cyanobacterial assemblages in thermal water environments. We report here on the community structure of the cyanobaterial mats at the hot spring of the alkaline ad low sulphide artificial pool of “Carrizal” (Villa Emiliano Zapata, Mexico). The most common organisms were Anabaena sp., Phormidium sp. and Pseudoanabaena sp. Some filamentous cyanobacteria showed a 98%-95% 16S rDNA gene similarity with Oscillatoria sp. and cluster together with other filamentous cyanobacteria from the thermal environments.
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